NBP mitigates the effects of the pandemic and preserves the stability of the Polish currency
President of NBP, Professor Adam Glapiński in „Financial Times”
President of NBP, Professor Adam Glapiński in „Financial Times”
Inflation data not worrying, says Poland’s central bank chief.
Adam Glapinski also notes there is ‘no sign’ of property bubbles fuelled by low interest rates
James Shotter in Warsaw
Poland’s central bank governor has dismissed short-term concerns over inflation, even as other central banks in the region have begun to raise interest rates to combat a surge in prices. Adam Glapinski said the data was not currently “worrying”, noting that inflation was partly driven by transient and external factors such as base effects, and fuel prices. Currently the second highest in the EU, Polish year-on-year inflation hit 4.7 per cent in May, before easing to 4.4 per cent in June.
“When we subtract from headline inflation the impact of regulatory and supply-side factors we get inflation close to 2.5 per cent, which is the midpoint of our inflation target,” he told the Financial Times. “So at the moment, there is no cause for alarm, especially as we also expect headline inflation to fall.”
Inflation has rebounded in many countries as pandemic restrictions are lifted, prompting some economists to call for central banks to wind down the stimulus measures adopted during the crisis. Central banks in Hungary and the Czech Republic both raised rates last month.
Glapinski said that the central bank, Narodowy Bank Polski, would watch “very carefully” for signs that rising wages were driving up prices as the economy accelerates after pandemic lockdowns. He expects Poland’s economy to grow more than 5 per cent next year.
“If we see that there is a tendency that in a few quarters this rise in prices could be driven by these demand-side factors, then we will act. When will it happen? It’s hard to say precisely, but rather not earlier than in the autumn of this year. Or maybe only halfway through next year,” he said.
“Our approach is similar to that of the Federal Reserve, or the ECB: we are waiting for the economic recovery to become certain and solid, and then we will observe whether there is a risk of a rise in inflation. And we certainly won’t hesitate: we will act immediately as soon as it is necessary.”
Some economists argue the NBP should already be taking steps to tame inflation, as Poland’s labour market is showing signs of tightness. Unemployment, standing at 3.8 per cent of the workforce, is among the lowest in the EU, according to Eurostat.
“We have a very low unemployment rate, which is putting pressure on wages. And on top of this, the Polish Deal [a government programme of tax and spending pledges] will boost demand,” said Alicja Defratyka, an economist at ciekaweliczby.pl.
She added: “I think that inflation is likely to be between 4.5 per cent and 5 per cent by the end of this year, and it could be even higher if all the measures proposed in the Polish Deal come into force.”
Glapinski said the NBP did not have “any specific concerns” about the labour market, and that the inflow of workers from neighbouring Ukraine and Belarus would “certainly be enough to meet the growing demand for labour” in coming years.
“Of course we are watching to see whether any bottlenecks occur in the labour market, but at the moment we don’t have any excessive pressure on wages. Wages are rising — but more slowly than labour productivity. Unit labour costs are not rising,” he said.
He added: “The worst thing that could happen would be a wage-price spiral but such a risk is very limited. We don’t have this, and at the moment we certainly don’t see it happening in the coming quarters. We don’t see it happening next year either.”
Economists have also raised concerns about ultra-loose monetary policy fuelling bubbles in the real estate and finance sectors. However, Glapinski said that Poland’s banks were well-capitalised, and that the real estate market was not overheating.
“At the moment there is no sign of bubbles in the real estate sector that are fuelled by low interest rates. And we don’t expect it,” he said.
“Bear in mind that these low interest rates have only been in place for a relatively very short time, and according to the market expectations next year we will already start to leave this territory. And the cycles in real estate are much longer.”
Article by Prof. Adam Glapiński in "L'Opinion"
NBP President and Poland’s Prime Minister on post-pandemic Poland in international media
The global initiative of Narodowy Bank Polski, apart from the articles by President of NBP Prof. Adam Glapiński and Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland Mateusz Morawiecki, also presents the contributions of historians and other intellectuals such as William A. Allen, Prof. Michał Kleiber, Marcin Jakubowski, Jarosław Szarek, Prof. Aleksander Surdej, Andrzej Krajewski and Artur Szklener.
Warsaw, 25 June 2021 – The article “Post-Pandemic Stabilisation and Challenges” by Professor Adam Glapiński, President of NBP, appears in today’s issue of the French journal L’Opinion.
The article is released as part of the project “We’re Telling the World about Poland”, whose latest edition is devoted to innovative Poland and ideas for exiting from the COVID-19 pandemic.
In his article for L’Opinion, Professor Adam Glapiński, President of NBP writes that “[…] determining the optimal exit strategy from unconventional monetary policy measures is quite a challenge. However, one can certainly say that this process – both around the world and in Poland – should be wisely spread over time and treated as an element of continuity of the central bank’s policies, which on the one hand cannot undermine the foundations of the post-crisis growth, and on the other hand, cannot allow the build-up of macroeconomic and financial imbalances.”
“We have ambitious plans for the future, which all have one thing in common – to facilitate Poland’s catching up with the wealthiest countries. In pursuit of this goal, we must not only conduct prudent monetary policy, but also fully take advantage of the opportunities created by the increase in our foreign exchange reserves,” the NBP President writes further on in the article.
“[…] we must prudently lead Poland out onto the path of sustainable growth and convergence as well as wisely invest our growing reserve assets. At stake is a secure future and further improvement in the living conditions of millions of Polish citizens,” Prof. Adam Glapiński emphasises in his article for the French newspaper.
L’Opinion is one of the most influential newspaper titles in France and the main partner of The Wall Street Journal in Europe.
Prof. Adam Glapiński’s article, accompanied by texts by the Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland, historians and other intellectuals published as part of the project “We’re Telling the World about Poland,” is also appearing this weekend in more than 50 media around the world. All the articles are devoted to innovative Poland; they are published on the website www.WszystkoCoNajwazniejsze.pl.
The latest edition of the project “We’re Telling the World about Poland” is carried out by Instytut Nowych Mediów (the New Media Institute) with the support of the Institute of National Remembrance, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Narodowy Bank Polski and the Polish Press Agency.
Article of the President of NBP, Professor Adam Glapiński in Dziennik Gazeta Prawna
We are ready for all scenarios
One year has just passed since the COVID-19 pandemic reached Poland. For the past 12 months we have been fighting not only for the health and lives of Poles, but also for the wellbeing of our economy. Just as in the case of efforts to slow down the spread of the virus, quick and decisive action was necessary in order to limit the economic costs of the pandemic. Despite many questions marks – regarding transmission of the virus and the impact of the pandemic on the decisions of economic entities – in the past year NBP took rapid and decisive actions that significantly mitigated the negative economic impact of the pandemic shock.
We cut interest rates significantly and launched the purchase of bonds issued and guaranteed by the State Treasury. Although the decisions concerning monetary policy were made very swiftly and amid great uncertainty, today we can safely say that – together with the fiscal policy measures implemented – they have provided effective support for the Polish economy. This success has been reflected not only in the data on GDP, according to which the decline in domestic production in Poland was less than half the average decrease recorded in Europe. Indeed, the most important measure of our success has been our ability to limit the scale of costs that Polish families and Polish entrepreneurs are forced to bear as a result of the pandemic.
In particular, we managed to avoid a deterioration in the situation in the labour market, as evidenced, among others, by the lowest unemployment rate in the whole of the European Union, as well as the still robust, positive rate of growth in real wages. The enterprise sector is coping rather well in spite of the pandemic, although the situation is obviously highly varied, and the services sector continues to suffer the most. However, despite the pandemic-related restrictions, the number of companies that went bankrupt last year was lower than the number of bankruptcies in 2019. Moreover, the balance of funds held by companies and households on bank accounts is now much higher than before the outbreak of the pandemic
It can therefore be said that the results of our struggles with the economic consequences of the pandemic have been positive thus far. Unfortunately, it is still too early to declare complete success. The pandemic is not over yet, we are still seeing widespread infections across Europe, while Poland is currently battling the third wave of the disease. It is difficult to predict when we will be able to fully contain the pandemic and when its negative impact on economic activity will finally end.
What is encouraging, however, is that the successive waves of the pandemic are causing less and less economic damage. The available data suggest that many economies – including Poland – are adapting to functioning in pandemic conditions. Moreover, the prevailing view among economists is that along with the decrease in the number of cases – which is expected to happen soon – as well as the lifting of most of the restrictions, many countries will experience a pronounced economic recovery. Currently, it is most commonly assumed that a significant improvement in the epidemic situation will occur in the second half of the year. Forecasts of economic growth around the world – formulated on the basis of such assumptions – suggest that the situation in the global economy will significantly improve by the second quarter of this year. Economic growth is also expected to recover in our immediate economic environment, although the scale of GDP growth in the euro area is likely to remain moderate this year.
A significant economic recovery is also expected to begin in the Polish economy starting in the summer months. Such a scenario is indicated, among others, in the NBP projection published in March. Following a strong rebound in the second quarter of this year – additionally reinforced by the statistical base effects associated with the sharp decline in GDP in 2020 – economic activity is expected to grow robustly in the remaining part of the year, supported by the strong performance of exports and a recovery in domestic demand. According to the projection, the subsequent years will also see a dynamic growth of the Polish economy. In short, NBP’s March projection envisages a highly positive development of economic conditions in Poland in the coming years. We can only hope that these predictions will come true.
So far, however, the economic recovery has been limited and has only applied to selected sectors of the economy, especially those oriented towards exports. Meanwhile, for the time being, slower growth in manufacturing industries oriented to the domestic market, along with the decline in retail sales, point to the weakness of domestic demand. Of course, this does not mean that the situation will not improve later in the year. However, two conditions have to be fulfilled for that to happen. Firstly, it is necessary for the epidemic situation to improve significantly, which will probably happen along with the progress of the vaccination campaign. Secondly, this improvement must contribute to a revival in consumer spending and investment. Although we obviously cannot control the course of the pandemic, we can continue to support households and businesses by maintaining an expansionary monetary policy stance, thereby increasing the chances of a strong and sustainable economic rebound following last year’s recession.
This is not only possible but also highly desirable, due to the current and projected path of inflation. A continuation of the measures pursued so far will, in fact, be conducive to the achievement of NBP’s basic objective, i.e. maintaining consumer price inflation at 2.5 per cent +/-¬¬1 percentage point. In January, the consumer price index was 2.7 per cent, and in February it stood at 2.4 per cent, which means that it was fully in line with the NBP inflation target. Of course, there is also considerable uncertainty when it comes to the inflation outlook. We know that this year inflation will once again be pushed up by regulatory factors, that is, mainly the already increased electricity prices and the planned further increases in waste collection fees. What’s more, in the coming months the increase in the annual inflation rate will be driven by the so-called base effects on fuel prices, along with an additional increase in global oil prices. Taken together, these factors will significantly accelerate price growth, which could reach approximately 3 per cent starting from the second quarter. Therefore, until the end of the year, an inflation rate slightly higher than the current level – although still remaining within the range of deviations from the NBP inflation target – will largely be the result of negative supply shocks, that is, factors beyond the direct control of monetary policy. However, this will certainly not be the result of excessive demand pressures in the economy as a whole. Even if the expected economic recovery materialises this year, it will take place after a pronounced decline in GDP last year, and as a result the output gap will remain negative. That is why the NBP projection predicts that core inflation will gradually decline over the course of the next year, despite being pushed up by increases in administered prices. The projection also suggests that in subsequent years dynamic growth in economic activity will be accompanied by a gradual increase in core inflation; however, the overall rate of price growth will remain consistent with the NBP inflation target.
Of course, all predictions are characterised by uncertainty. This is especially true for projections relating to the end of the projection horizon, that is, the year 2023. A lot will depend on the course of the pandemic and its impact on economic growth in Poland and in Europe. Therefore, we should hope for the best possible outcome, but we should also be prepared for the materialisation of less favourable scenarios. We hope that soon we will manage to bring the pandemic under control, which will enable the Polish economy to return to rapid growth and to our Polish “economic miracle.”
However, the activities of NBP cannot be based on wishful thinking. Our task is to increase the chances of a return to rapid economic growth after the pandemic, while maintaining price stability and macroeconomic balance. This necessitates the continuation of the monetary policy measures implemented so far. We have to ensure low costs of financing for all sectors of the economy. At the same time, we cannot allow any abrupt changes in the exchange rate or bond yields to limit our growth prospects, because these factors determine the growth potential of the Polish economy over the course of many years to come. The very reason why we have our own currency, the Polish złoty, is to ensure that we are able to conduct an independent and autonomous monetary policy, which – together with the floating currency exchange rate – acts as a shock absorber. Therefore, especially in difficult times, our currency helps us reduce the negative impact of external shocks on the economy and enables us to make up for the losses faster. Thanks to our resilience to crises, which we have developed by having our own currency, we are able to stay on the path of convergence and continue our efforts at catching up with the wealthiest countries. What is ultimately at stake here is the continued improvement in the financial situation of Polish families and Polish entrepreneurs.
The text was first published in Dziennik Gazeta Prawna on 23 March 2021
Interview with the President of NBP summing up the year 2020 for Obserwator Finansowy
Since mid-December 2020, the NBP Management Board has been purchasing foreign currencies on the FX market in order to strengthen the impact of NBP’s monetary policy easing on the economy, said the President of NBP, Prof. Adam Glapiński in an interview for Obserwator Finansowy.
Mr. President, what can be said about 2020 from today’s perspective?
President of NBP, Prof. Adam Glapiński: Today, although the epidemic situation is still difficult, we can say that we have successfully faced the challenges of the pandemic and the resulting downturn. Thanks to our joint efforts the Polish economy and the Polish state coped quite well with the pandemic crisis.
The pandemic has had strong, negative effects on the global economy.
The measures aimed at inhibiting transmission of the virus – in particular, the lockdown of certain sectors of the economy in many countries – have had a significant, negative impact on economic activity. This impact was additionally exacerbated by the decisions of entrepreneurs and ordinary people who – in the face of increased uncertainty about the future economic situation and concerns about health – limited their spending on investments and consumption. The negative economic effects of the pandemic were also exacerbated by the fact that they occurred simultaneously in many economies, severely reducing international trade. As a consequence, in the second quarter of 2020, the global economy experienced a slump on a scale not seen for decades.
How did Poland fare against this background?
In the second quarter of 2020, Poland also recorded a significant decline in GDP. It was a high, but inevitable price it had to pay to rapidly curb the spread of the epidemic, which was achieved by restricting the activities of certain industries and limiting the mobility of citizens. At the same time, the state authorities acted equally quickly to mitigate the negative impact of the pandemic on the situation of Polish companies and families. Narodowy Bank Polski also took decisive and pre-emptive steps to support the Polish economy. NBP cut interest rates significantly, including the reference rate to 0.1%, and launched the purchase of bonds issued and guaranteed by the State Treasury. In this way, NBP mitigated the negative impact of the pandemic on the financial situation of indebted households and enterprises, as its actions translated into smaller loan instalments. Moreover, NBP purchased bonds with a value of almost PLN 113 billion at purchase prices. By purchasing these securities, NBP contributed to a reduction in bond yields, which strengthened the impact of the monetary easing on the economy, and at the same time increased the fiscal space for the implementation of the government’s anti-crisis measures.
Thanks to the economic policy measures taken by the state, as well as the extraordinary ability of Polish entrepreneurs to adapt to difficult conditions, the effects of the pandemic shock in Poland were exceptionally mild. The decline in GDP in the second quarter of 2020 in Poland was smaller than in the vast majority of the other European economies. Moreover, in the third quarter of 2020, we experienced a marked recovery in economic activity, which proves that the appropriate response of economic policy helped to prevent the shock from having a long-term negative impact on the economy.
From today’s perspective, do you believe that NBP’s reaction to the crisis was adequate?
I have no doubt that our response was appropriate. This is confirmed by many world experts, and Kristalina Georgieva, the head of the International Monetary Fund, openly admitted in an interview with journalists that NBP had taken the right direction. As I mentioned, NBP reacted very quickly to the risks associated with the pandemic and took steps to mitigate the effects of this shock on the economy. And today we can say with full conviction that our actions proved to be effective. First of all, the reduction in interest rates fully translated into lower interest rates on loans. And let us remember that this concerns not only new loans, but also those taken out before the pandemic. And lower interest rates on loans means lower loan instalments, which Polish families and companies have felt in their wallets. It also reduced the risk of insolvency of many companies, which could have had serious repercussions on the labour market and future economic growth. Secondly, the yields on government bonds have also dropped significantly, thanks to which taxpayers will pay less for the government’s measures taken in response to the pandemic. In short, as a result of the easing of NBP’s monetary policy the 2020 recession was much less severe. These measures will also boost Polish GDP growth in 2021. Our experts estimate that in these two years total GDP will be 1.4 percentage points higher thanks to our actions. That’s a lot. Monetary policy easing also helped to reduce the risk of inflation dropping below the NBP target, which would be very unfavourable for our economy. So there is no doubt that our response to the pandemic was appropriate and immediate.
Returning to the current economic situation, in the third quarter of 2020 it seemed that the worst was over. Has the resurgence of new infections in October and November changed that assessment?
In economic terms, I still believe the worst is over, but the second wave of the coronavirus pandemic has held back the earlier recovery and increased uncertainty. Fortunately, its consequences were not as disastrous as those we faced in spring 2020. And this is despite the fact that in terms of epidemics, autumn 2020 turned out to be much more difficult. This is partly because although the intensification of the epidemic forced the government to tighten restrictions again, it was possible to avoid a lockdown in many sectors, and some entrepreneurs adapted their activities to the prevailing conditions. At the same time, NBP continued its earlier activities ensuring low financing costs. As a result, in the fourth quarter – as suggested by the available data – the Polish economy did not suffer as much as in the first wave. For while the situation in the service sector has worsened again, industry has been doing well so far. Overall, however, in the fourth quarter of 2020 we will probably see a larger drop in GDP in annual terms, although this decline will be clearly smaller than in the second quarter of 2020.
Is it precisely this resilience of the Polish economy that is behind the recently observed pressure on złoty appreciation? Is it true that NBP has recently intervened in the currency market?
The lack of a clear and lasting adjustment of the złoty exchange rate to the global shock and NBP’s monetary policy easing is partly a sign of a positive assessment of the Polish economy by investors. But it is also related to the fact that the major central banks continue to ease their monetary policy significantly by purchasing assets on a larger scale than NBP does, by increasing liquidity and by announcing they will maintain low or even negative rates for the next several years. This creates conditions for asset price increases on a global scale, as recently seen in many markets, including the currency market. Let us remember that for an economy like ours the exchange rate is an important determinant of the overall tightness of monetary conditions and a shock absorber. In 2008 and at the beginning of 2009, in response to the global financial crisis, the złoty depreciated significantly, which, alongside the automatic stabilizers in fiscal policy, was the most important factor that allowed Poland to avoid recession – the only country in the EU to do so. In 2020, we experienced a recession, which required NBP to significantly ease its monetary policy. At the same time, the złoty weakened only temporarily, and to a limited extent, so that ultimately the real effective exchange rate practically did not change from the level before the pandemic.
In recent months, we have kept interest rates unchanged because there was less space for this, and at the same time we were buying fewer assets. On the other hand, the policy of the major central banks, including the ECB, still involved strong monetary easing. This put pressure on the appreciation of the złoty and the risk of a pro-cyclical strengthening of the exchange rate amid the second wave of the pandemic and persistently high uncertainty about the scale and sustainability of the recovery in the coming quarters.
Let me repeat, the lack of an exchange rate adjustment undermines the natural mechanism that allows economies with floating exchange rate regimes to mitigate the scale of the downturn, provide more opportunities for recovery and limit the risk of an excessive decline in inflation. That is why the growing upward pressure on the value of the Polish złoty that we have observed recently is extremely alarming and very detrimental. It is detrimental as regards the rebound of Poland’s GDP growth and the continuation of export growth. In view of our projection of inflation, which expects inflation to be running at a low level in 2021, this obviously creates the space for possible decisive interventions of the central bank. Therefore, the NBP Management Board has been purchasing foreign currencies on the FX market since mid-December 2020 in order to strengthen the impact of NBP’s monetary policy easing on the economy.
In December the number of Covid-19 cases dropped and vaccinations began at the end of the year. At the same time, there is a chance that after 17 January 2021 the pandemic restrictions will start to be lifted. So, can we expect that 2021 will bring an improvement in the economic situation?
We will not return to normal from one day to the next, but we can assume that the impact of the epidemic on the economy will gradually weaken. Hopes for this to happen are boosted by the start of vaccinations and the adaptation of society to living in the conditions of the pandemic. And if the impact of the pandemic on the economy diminishes significantly, there is a good chance that 2021 will bring an improvement in the economic situation. This scenario is suggested by our forecasts, according to which in 2021 we will see a gradual recovery in economic activity. Importantly, the economic recovery will be accompanied by moderate inflation, which, according to forecasts, will be in line with the NBP target. It should be remembered that regulatory factors, in the form of negative supply shocks, namely an increase in energy prices and prices of waste disposal, will put upward pressure on inflation. Without them, price growth would be significantly lower. In short, the baseline scenario for 2021 is a gradual economic recovery and inflation running in line with the NBP target. I hope such a scenario will materialize, but 2020 reminded us that the course of the epidemic and thus also economic developments are not easy to predict. In such a situation, it may take us longer than we anticipate to get the economy back to normal. This, in turn, would also create the risk of price growth dropping below the inflation target, which in the current macroeconomic situation would be another unfavourable factor for the economy.
Taking into account the outlook for the economic situation and inflation that you have outlined, does NBP plan to further ease monetary policy?
From today’s perspective, the current level of interest rates is appropriate and best suits the current situation. However, in the first quarter of 2021 interest rates may be cut further. Therefore, NBP is conducting the necessary analyses of the possible circumstances and potential effects of such an interest rate cut. If the pandemic and the economic situation develop in line with the baseline scenario, i.e. the epidemic situation stabilizes and the economic situation gradually improves, there should be no need to change the parameters of monetary policy in the coming quarters. However, should the Polish economic situation be affected by negative factors, creating the risk of inflation falling below the target, we cannot rule out the need of a more decisive monetary policy response. For example, in the event of a third wave of the pandemic in the winter months, it would be possible to further lower interest rates in the first quarter of 2021. In short, with the current high level of uncertainty about the future economic situation, nothing is a foregone conclusion and we should be ready for various scenarios. I believe that with the release of the March projection of inflation and GDP, we will know more about the epidemic situation and economic outlook, which will also enable us to better assess further monetary policy measures.
Do these analyses also take into account the impact of a potential interest rate cut on the banking sector? Such a decision would certainly pose an additional challenge for banks.
I would like to comment on the constantly repeated argument that interest rate cuts mean that banks’ financial condition will deteriorate. It is true that lowering interest rates from their already low level may translate, with other conditions unchanged, into a short-term decline in banks’ interest income. Yet, it is not true that other conditions remain unchanged. Interest rate cuts also affect the macroeconomic conditions, which have a significant impact on the performance of banks. First of all, interest rate cuts have a positive effect on the domestic economic situation and, consequently, on banks themselves, whose situation largely depends on the condition of borrowers. Thus, abstaining from interest rate cuts in the event of a marked deterioration of the economic outlook would do a disservice to banks. It should also be emphasized that interest rate cuts directly reduce the credit risk incurred by banks, easing the burden on the income of borrowers in the form of interest payments. The interest rate cuts implemented so far in 2020 have left up to PLN 7 billion in the wallets of banks’ clients in annual terms. At the same time, I should emphasize that NBP’s decisions are not and cannot be limited by their possible impact on the financial results of one sector. We should keep in mind that the pandemic-driven recession has affected the financial condition of many Polish companies and families. And NBP’s task was to mitigate this negative impact, so as to prevent the sluggish economic activity from increasing the risk of an excessive fall in inflation. Of course, what NBP must take into account is the stability of the banking sector. But from this point of view, it is not only the current results of banks that count, but above all their ability to absorb losses and provide lending. In this respect, our estimates indicate that the banking sector has adequate capital to continue to operate soundly even in a much worse scenario than we currently assume.
Last year was very difficult for many Polish companies. But can something positive come out of these hard experiences?
President Roosevelt reportedly once said that, “a smooth sea never made a skilled sailor.” With windless weather at sea, it is impossible to gain the skills and experience necessary in a storm. Likewise, operating in favourable and stable economic conditions rarely allows you to prepare for more difficult times. Unfortunately, such times are bound to come sooner or later as unexpected shocks are an inherent feature of the economy. The challenges faced in periods of recession often trigger creativity and dynamism, which allow many economic agents to adapt to the changed conditions. I believe that the measures introduced in response to the crisis, as well as the innovations of many companies and the knowledge and experience gained during this period, will also yield benefits long after the pandemic is over.
NBP has recently become very much involved in the promotion of the National Cash Security Strategy. The pandemic is a powerful shock for economic agents. It was reflected, among others, in growing demand for cash among citizens. Demand for this type of payment is still high in many European countries, such as Germany. What measures is Narodowy Bank Polski planning to take to ensure cash security in 2021?
The safety of cash transactions will be one of the priorities of our work in 2021. The pandemic has revealed how important it is to maintain general acceptance and availability of cash, as the freedom to use it is one of our civil liberties. Banknotes and coins, whose sole issuer is Narodowy Bank Polski, are legal tender in Poland. Meanwhile, according to our research conducted in 2020, during the pandemic as many as 9 per cent of customers were refused cash payment in everyday transactions. Poland was, is and will be a country of cash – at the end of 2020, the value of cash in circulation exceeded PLN 321 billion. This means an increase in the value of banknotes and coins in circulation by almost 35 per cent compared to 2019. Narodowy Bank Polski simply does what Polish citizens expect it to do – it provides them with wide and safe access to cash.
Interview by Maciej Danielewicz, Editor-in-Chief of Obserwator Finansowy
See: Interview with the President of NBP summing up the year 2020 for Obserwator Finansowy
Text by President of NBP, Prof. Adam Glapiński, for the “Polski Kompas 2020” annual
NBP actively supports the Polish economy during the pandemic
Narodowy Bank Polski has taken decisive, early action, while supporting the protective measures imposed by the government in the face of the pandemic. As a result, it was possible to avoid “the worst case scenario”. At the same time, the outlook for the Polish economy looks very good against the backdrop of other economies.
Mervyn King, erstwhile Governor of the Bank of England, said in 2000 that central banks should pursue their monetary policy in a “boring” manner. By that he meant that the monetary policy – so as to best serve the aims of preserving macroeconomic stability and keeping inflation low – should be followed according to predefined and tried-and-tested rules and with the use of standard instruments.
The experience gained by Narodowy Bank Polski before the pandemic proves that following a conventional and conservative monetary policy is an effective means of accomplishing the objectives pursued by a central bank in normal times. Before the outbreak of the pandemic, NBP held the reference rate at an unchanged level of 1.5% for five years, and so inflation stayed around NBP’s inflation target and rapid, though sustainable, economic growth could be maintained. As a result, the growth in Poland was based on sound foundations, and the Polish economy was well prepared for the more difficult times ahead.
However, the unprecedented nature of the events that took place in the first half of 2020, surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, required that NBP reach for monetary policy tools not yet used by the Polish central bank, though used by other banks following the global financial crisis. This is because the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic led to the biggest global recession for decades and a clear restriction of the economic activity in Poland, which entailed the risk of inflation falling below NBP’s inflation target in the following years. NBP therefore had to stand on the frontline of the fight for mitigating the negative economic consequences of the pandemic.
At the onset of the pandemic, i.e. in mid-March, no one had any data yet on the impact it exerted on the economy. It could, however, be expected that the pandemic would hit Polish enterprises and households through direct restrictions on the functioning of some industries and sectors (among others, gastronomy, education, culture, transport or tourism), a massive increase in uncertainty, and a decrease in revenues, as well as a clear contraction in foreign demand for Polish goods and services.
As a result, it could be expected that a deep recession would hit and a wave of bankruptcies and strong rise in unemployment would ensue, unless adequate protective action was taken as part of national economic policy. From the point of view of a central bank, whose primary statutory objective is to maintain price stability, it was significant that there was a risk of inflation dropping below the inflation target in the medium term, and the risk was linked to a potentially deep recession and its secondary effects later on.
Therefore, NBP’s greatest challenge was to act swiftly in order to buffer the economic consequences of the pandemic, while at the same time preventing these from strengthening and creating conditions for a faster recovery in the economic activity in the following quarters. At the beginning, it became essential to maintain liquidity in the temporarily “frozen” economy. Because of the restrictions on conducting business activity and a severe reduction in demand, many enterprises could lose liquidity and would, as a result, have to cease their activities and dismiss their workforce, which might even further reduce revenues in the economy and curb demand. In such an event, the Polish economy would not quickly get back on its previous track having been “unfrozen”.
In view of the above, Narodowy Bank Polski – as one of the first central banks in Europe – took anticipative action to address the expected deterioration in the economic situation and already in mid-March it introduced decisive measures in order to ease the monetary policy and mitigate the crisis. Firstly, since 17 March, the Monetary Policy Council has cut the reference rate three times, by 1.4 percentage points in total, to the level of 0.10%. Secondly, NBP launched structural open market operations aimed at purchasing government securities and government-guaranteed debt securities on the secondary market. Thirdly, in March, the Monetary Policy Council decided to decrease the required reserve ratio by 3 percentage points, to the level of 0.5%, and at the same time, the Financial Stability Committee recommended releasing the systemic risk buffer for banks, which was set at 3%.
The said measures adopted by NBP all had a common denominator, and that was to support Polish entrepreneurs and households in the crisis. Through these measures, NBP reduced the risk of inflation dropping below NBP’s inflation target in the medium term. Here, we can point to three main channels through which the monetary policy pursued by NBP has influenced the Polish economy.
Firstly, the easing of NBP’s monetary policy has contributed to lowering interest rates on loans granted to households and enterprises, thereby reducing repayment instalments. It may be estimated that cutting the NBP interest rates since March this year will contribute to reducing the burden on households and enterprises on account of interest on the existing loans by nearly PLN 7 billion annually. It is substantial support for the financial situation and sentiment of indebted business entities.
Secondly, the easing of NBP’s monetary policy has enabled smooth implementation and financing of the protective measures imposed by the government, thus providing Polish families and enterprises with direct financial support. The asset purchases launched by NBP – by the end of August 2020, NBP purchased securities with a par value of PLN 103.3 billion – helped to maintain the liquidity of the Treasury bond market, and, consequently, facilitated the placement of additional bonds by the Ministry of Finance, Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego, and the Polish Development Fund in the market. At the same time, the costs of financing the protective measures adopted by the government have been cut efficiently, as there has been a substantial decline in Treasury bond yields. This, in turn, will result in markedly lower costs of servicing the public debt.
Thirdly, the steps taken by NBP, including Treasury bond purchases and decreasing the required reserve ratio for banks, along with the recommendation from the Financial Stability Committee to release the systemic risk buffer set at 3%, have all made a vital contribution to increased bank lending. As a result, banks now lack neither liquid funds nor capital to provide Polish enterprises and households with access to credit. Furthermore, NBP offered bill discount credit to banks enabling them to obtain low-cost refinancing of loans extended to enterprises.
NBP has thus undertaken decisive and early intervention measures, while supporting the protective measures imposed by the government in the face of the pandemic. As a result, it was possible to avoid “the worst case scenario”. At the same time, the outlook for the Polish economy looks very good against the backdrop of other economies. Obviously, this is not only due to the central bank’s and the government’s response to the pandemic, but also to the strong fundamentals of the Polish economy laid down in the years before the pandemic, and most of all – to the entrepreneurship and diligence of Polish citizens
Finally, it has to be pointed out that the adequate response of the central bank to the current pandemic shock would not have been possible if Poland was in the Eurozone. In such a case, the monetary conditions in Poland would be shaped by the decisions of the European Central Bank, adopted de facto on the basis of the situation in the largest economies of the Eurozone. As a result, the monetary policy response would not be fully dovetailed with the macroeconomic processes taking place in Poland in terms of its scale and the time of its implementation.
The latest data on the Polish economy give reasons to look into the future with cautious optimism. The data indicate that the return of the Polish economy to growth may be faster than it was previously thought. At the same time, forecasts say that in 2020 Poland is standing a chance to achieve the highest economic performance in Europe with inflation kept at a level compliant with NBP’s inflation target. It speaks very well for the anti-crisis action taken by Narodowy Bank Polski.
However, the struggle against the economic consequences of the pandemic is certainly not over yet. It will surely take some time for the economy to recover and heal completely. NBP therefore remains ready to undertake further anti-crisis measures, where the implementation of the central bank’s objectives and the Polish economy so require.
Regardless of how the situation develops further, I can assure all entrepreneurs and Polish families that NBP will continue to maintain price stability and enhance sustainable economic growth and thus – lay the foundations for maintaining the Polish economic success.
The text was published in the sixth edition of the “Polski Kompas” annual, issued by the editorial board of the “Gazeta Bankowa” monthly.
Interview with Professor A. Glapiński, President of NBP in the quarterly “Apostoł Miłosierdzia Bożego”
We have to serve the highest values
On the difference between God’s economy and human economy,
the institution of a bank, and the obligation to multiply our talents
– a conversation between Professor Adam Glapiński, the president of NBP,
and Father Jarosław Rodzik SAC
Dear Mister President, when priests want to encourage the faithful to pay more attention to their own salvation, they sometimes speak of the difference between the human economy and God’s economy. So, how is it actually? Which one is more important?
This is a very important question. We should recognize, however, that these notions are incomparable. God’s economy is governed by laws that are only known to God, although people should strive to learn about them and to understand them. The Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard is one of those stories that could illuminate the concept of God’s economy. Each of the workers received the same pay regardless of how much time they spent working. In human economy we would demand some distinction to be made. The easiest answer, however, is that God’s economy requires people to work on themselves.
I would also introduce an additional notion of private economy, understood as finding your right path in life. We should first find in ourselves the features of our own vocation. We should answer the question of what we should be doing for the good of others. This is the path towards God’s economy, which is guided by a different set of principles than human economy. As a university teacher and a professor of economics I’ve always sought the traces of this unique vocation in science, literature, and culture. While I sometimes joke that I chose economics by accident, in reality these studies fascinated me also because they allowed me to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms governing human decision-making.
This question also has a hidden agenda – the difference between the temporal and the eternal homeland. In his lecture on “the last things of man”, contained in the Letter of Paul to the Philippians 3:1-4:1, St. Paul makes the following statement: “Our citizenship is in heaven.” This is putting the matter on a knife-edge…
As a believer, I recognize that every human action should be oriented towards a confirmation of these words: “Our citizenship is in heaven.” And this means that we have to serve the highest values. Putting this in terms more relevant to everyday life, this means working on ourselves for the common good, as mentioned previously.
In economics textbooks we don’t encounter concepts such as the original sin or human selfishness. Meanwhile, they remain intricately linked to our thinking and our activities. They almost entirely define our human nature. In your opinion, what (or who) makes us reluctant to confront these notions not only in the sphere of scientific reflection but also in the public debate?
The notion of original sin in the theological understanding is indeed typically absent from the works of economists, although in the metaphorical sense we will probably encounter such a term in the descriptions of mistakes made in the area of financial management. The second notion, “selfishness”, is actually recognized in economics, although it isn’t always referred to in this way. If we were to look, for example, at practices which place the greatest emphasis on maximizing profits at the expense of the common good, then under certain assumptions we would arrive at the concept of selfishness. The reluctance to use clearly defined ethical concepts may have its source, among others, in the narrow specialization of many scientific fields. We should keep in mind that we are living in times in which attempts are being made to redefine many concepts. Economics as a social science primarily focuses on mechanisms, presents the relationships between various phenomena, refers to statistics. Only then certain differences in interpretation can emerge, where we may apply the concepts of ethics and morality.
Before we move on to the institution of the bank, let’s talk about one more story from the Gospels. In the Parable of the Rich Fool (Luke 12: 13-21) Jesus describes a man who is not able to share with others and only cares about his earthly granaries. He criticizes the attitude of gathering things in excess, complacency, the lack of sensitivity to the needs of fellow men, and the refusal to think about the final judgment. How can we reconcile our concern for the “earthly granaries” with the need to invest in our eternal treasures in heaven?
This is another important question, which has a deep theological sense, forcing us to think and act not only in the context of our earthly life. If we were to look at the parable from the point of view of the principles of economics, which I hold dear, then we should indeed multiply goods, take care of the economy, and be able to seize the opportunities for development. But it’s important not to lose the broader perspective and, as they sometimes say in the economic forecasts, to remember about the more “long-term horizon.” Future generations will judge us with regard to our concern for the future using earthly measures, and God will evaluate our work by His own measure of good deeds.
The bank is an institution with long traditions – the beginning of the Renaissance, the 14th century, Italy. Although there are some sources stating that a family-owned Venetian bank began operating as early as in 1156. How can we explain this phenomenon, that merchants, businessmen and ordinary people started flocking to such an innovative form of managing assets and multiplying them?
The desire to accumulate and to increase one’s wealth is as old as human civilization. Already in antiquity, even before the contemporary form of money was developed, there was a need for financial institutions providing the secure storage of goods and valuables. One interesting example is ancient Egypt, which had an entire network of state-owned grain banks. They were used by people to deposit and dispose of grain, that is, an article of strategic importance for the Egyptian economy, which was also used in the payment of remuneration for work.
The period of the Middle Ages lasted for about a thousand years, and therefore it was not uniform in terms of economic developments. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, large parts of Europe experienced economic decline. The importance of long-distance trade decreased significantly. The people reverted to some extent to the natural economy, that is, one in which there is no need for money in the form of coins or banknotes. Such conditions were not conducive to the development of banking.
However, over time the European countries gradually rebuilt their international trade relations. Starting from the 11th century, Italian cities – which experienced rapid development as a result of Mediterranean trade – became the most important centres of economic activity. This benefited the merchants, who were among the financial elite of Medieval European society. They controlled substantial amounts of money, which made it possible for them to get involved in more complex financial activities. They established private banking houses, some of which operated in many countries simultaneously. This was a very lucrative business. However, for the merchants of that time, security was as important as the profits derived from their activities. The development of banking allowed for cashless settlement of large transactions, eliminating the necessity of carrying coins over long distances. This was a very important innovation. Europe entered the Modern Era with a somewhat well-developed financial infrastructure, which gradually gave rise to the forms of banking existing until today.
The etymology of the word “bank” is also interesting. It derives from the French word banque and the Italian word banco, which refer to the benches, tables, or counters used by the Italian goldsmiths and traders involved in the transfer of metallic coins between customers. Could it be argued that these transactions were based on mutual trust?
Looking from a broad historical perspective, we could point out that even in ancient Mesopotamia people were using certain simplified loan-like mechanisms (and were therefore involved in quasi-banking activities). The first institutions resembling today’s banks – taking deposits and providing loans – operated and successfully developed in the ancient civilizations of Babylon, Greece, and Rome. Along with the collapse of the classical culture, banks faded into oblivion, but the concept of such institutions resurfaced in the Middle Ages. Due to the development of the Medieval monetary and commodity system, the wealthier merchants started performing the functions of banks. They didn’t want to risk involvement in dangerous trade expeditions and decided to multiply their wealth by lending money to others at a very high interest. Along with the expansion of trade and the necessity of exchanging different currencies, the role of Medieval currency exchange offices was assumed by the money traders and goldsmiths. They also offered the settlement of payment orders to third parties. Money inevitably became the glue that strengthened the relationships between the lender and the borrower, between the bank and the client. This relationship had to be based on trust.
Institutions that most resembled contemporary banks were created in the late 14th century in northern Italy – Genoa, Venice, and Milan. Like the goldsmiths and money traders of the previous time periods, they took in deposits and issued promissory notes in return, and they also granted loans. However, these institutions were already organized in larger networks and operated in various cities or countries, sometimes located far away from each other. In this way the banks were creating a new quality in the relations with the borrowers and the depositors. Thanks to the ties within such networks, a customer who deposited money, for example, in Genoa, could withdraw money in Milan on the basis of the received promissory note. This eliminated the potential risks associated with carrying money over long distances. However, the promissory notes issued by the bankers were only worth anything as long as the clients trusted them and were certain that they would get their money back after submitting these documents. It sometimes happened that customers demonstrated their “undermined” confidence by demolishing the headquarters of a given bank, for example, by breaking the banking bench. This was also a warning signal to other customers that the bank had lost its liquidity and credibility. Over time, such negative experiences led to the development of systemic solutions aimed at building and strengthening the customers’ confidence in banks. Public guarantees provided to these institutions by the city, and later also by the state, were supposed to increase the security of bank transactions.
In 1790, the Warsaw-based banker Jędrzej Kapostas published a document entitled “Planta ułożenia projektu Banku Narodowego” (“Plans for the establishment of a National Bank”). Unfortunately, the partitions of Poland prevented the implementation of this project. Then came the year 1916 – the creation of Polska Krajowa Kasa Pożyczkowa (the Polish Loan Bank), and the year 1924 – the establishment of Bank Polski Spółka Akcyjna (the Bank of Poland). Could we say that these two institutions gave rise to the banking system of the reborn Polish state?
After the reestablishment of the Polish state in November of 1918, the authorities had to face many challenges – leading the economic reconstruction of the country, pursuing the reform of public finances, and ending the currency chaos. For over 100 years Polish people lived under three separate economic systems of the partitioning powers. As a result, the Polish state needed a new, unified monetary system, a well-organized fiscal and banking administration, and the efficient circulation of its own national currency. However, due to the extremely difficult economic position of the Polish state, it was impossible to quickly stabilize the banking system and the financial and monetary system. for this reason, the Polish government decided to take over Polska Krajowa Kasa Pożyczkowa, which had been established by the German occupation-era authorities. Polska Krajowa Kasa Pożyczkowa was supposed to serve as the central bank and the bank of issue until the launch of Bank Polski SA – the new Polish central bank.
As a result of this decision, the authorities were able to ensure both institutional continuity and the continuity of the Polish central bank’s issuing activity. After Poland regained its independence, the state authorities decided to unify the monetary system on the basis of the Polish mark, that is, the currency issued by Polska Krajowa Kasa Pożyczkowa. The temporary use of the Polish mark was supposed to give the authorities the time necessary to prepare a full currency reform. In this sense, the banking and issuing activity of Polska Krajowa Kasa Pożyczkowa served as a bridge to the full restoration of the Polish state finances, and as a necessary stage on the path to the establishment of a strong and stable banking system. This new system was based on Bank Polski SA, which was launched at the end of April 1924. It was created as part of the currency and fiscal reform of Władysław Grabski. Bank Polski SA operated as a joint stock company with a share capital of 100 million złoty and its shares were held by private individuals, businesses, various institutions, and banks. The State Treasury initially controlled a 1 per cent stake, which guaranteed that the bank was an institution fully independent from the government. It primarily served the function of the bank of issue and the bank of banks. Bank Polski SA undoubtedly constituted the foundation of the banking system in the newly reborn Polish republic and served an important role in the struggle to maintain the position of the Polish currency. Meanwhile, a stable Polish złoty was one of the key elements of the economic sovereignty of the state.
Before we conclude this historical thread, I would like to ask you about Władysław Grabski and his contribution to the institution that you are currently heading. I’m mentioning Grabski in order to highlight that it is possible to combine human genius with deep concern for the Polish state…
It's no accident that Władysław Grabski is primarily mentioned as a figure representing the Polish economic reconstruction after the First World War. He not only possessed all the formal qualifications necessary to hold the highest offices in the state, but through his actions he also exemplified a truly pro-state attitude. He was not afraid to take personal responsibility for his decisions and he defended his views regardless of the circumstances. Grabski believed that the restoration of a strong national currency with centuries-old tradition should be something more than just a symbolic gesture. He believed that the Polish złoty, reborn in 1924, should also provide the economic foundation for the citizens’ trust in the state. That it should enable successful development in the following years. This was particularly important in the context of the recent hyperinflation, which consumed the Polish mark in 1923 and had a very negative effect on public sentiment. Concern about the stability of the new currency was the primary objective of Bank Polski SA, whose establishment was so tirelessly pursued by Grabski. It’s worth recalling that this institution was the immediate predecessor of Narodowy Bank Polski, and the ideas that guided its activities, are also being reflected in more recent times. The redenomination carried out in Poland in 1995 could be seen as a symbolic rebirth of the Polish złoty in the conditions of a free market economy. In 1997 Narodowy Bank Polski acquired its present institutional shape. Since then, Poland has had numerous economic achievements, and the stable position of the Polish złoty has certainly contributed to that success. Władysław Grabski once said that “a healthy and strong currency is the foundation of the healthy development of economic life and the strength of state financing.” These words have lost none of their relevance.
On the website of NBP, we read the following statement: “Narodowy Bank Polski is the central bank of the Republic of Poland. Its tasks are stipulated in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, the Act on Narodowy Bank Polski, and the Banking Act.” Could you please explain to our readers what the precise meaning of these somewhat complex provisions is?
Narodowy Bank Polski is the central bank, in other words, it is the most important bank in Poland. Our motto is: “We protect the value of money.” This is due to the statutory provision that the primary task of NBP is to maintain price stability. The objective of NBP is to stabilize the inflation rate at the level of 2.5 percent, with a permissible fluctuation band of +/- 1 percentage point. This is in line with the “Monetary Policy Strategy beyond 2003”, which was developed by the Monetary Policy Council. We are responsible for the stability of the national currency, the Polish złoty. We manage foreign exchange reserves and thus we also ensure the appropriate level of financial security of the Polish state. We are the issuing bank of the Polish złoty, so we secure the liquidity of cash transactions. One important objective of NBP is also promoting the stability of the financial system. We care about the liquidity, efficiency, and security of the payments system. We also popularize economic knowledge. The work of analysts and experts employed at NBP is focused on these goals.
On the NBP website, we also find the following provision: “NBP fulfils three basic functions: the issuing bank, the bank of banks, and the central bank of the state.” The legislator has provided this institution with a great degree of independence. What are the arguments in favour of such legal regulations?
It's worth quoting a part of the Act on Narodowy Bank Polski: “The basic objective of the activity of NBP shall be to maintain price stability, while supporting the economic policy of the Government, insofar as this does not constrain the pursuit of the basic objective of NBP.” This sentence lays out the main objective: “maintaining price stability”, but also the responsibility for our country: “while supporting the economic policy of the Government”, with the important stipulation that the support for the economy cannot constrain the pursuit of the bank’s basic objective. It is extremely important to ensure that our national currency – the Polish złoty – retains its value. Let's keep in mind that the independence of the central bank is in reality a huge responsibility towards the state, to the citizens, and not some sort of unchecked privilege, as one might naively believe. A state can only thrive if it has an efficiently operating independent central bank.
I would also like to ask you about the role of the state in economic life. How can we reconcile the two classical approaches to this issue – state interventionism (proposed by John Maynard Keynes) and the free-market, liberal approach (represented by Friedrich August von Hayek or Ludwig von Mises)? Is there any effective alternative or a third way?
As is often the case in such debates, the truth lies somewhere in the middle. On the one hand, the experience of socialism has clearly shown that excessive state intervention in the economy has negative consequences. On the other hand, it would be impossible to find a single country whose economy is solely based on market mechanisms. There is no doubt that the appropriate solution lies somewhere in the middle between these two extreme options, and that the functioning of the free market should be complemented with an appropriate economic policy of the state. However, there is no consensus with regards to the scope of such intervention. Individual countries differ significantly in terms of the areas of state activity, which is reflected in the large differences in the scale of public spending. For example, in countries such as Chile, South Korea, and Switzerland, where the retirement pension systems, health care and education have a significant private component, the level of state expenditure is significantly lower than in France, Finland, and Belgium, where these services are mainly financed with public funds.
Despite differences in the views on the necessary scale of interventionism, in some cases, there is no doubt that an economic policy response is necessary. The current situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is certainly such a case. In the current conditions an intervention on the part of economic policy was necessary in order to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on the financial situation of companies and – consequently – on the labour market. I’m saying this despite the fact that, in principle, I am opposed to rescuing unprofitable enterprises using public funds. In normal conditions such measures reduce the incentive for more effective management and block the flow of resources in the economy. However, in the current situation strong assistance from the state was fully justified. In this crisis, even healthy companies were at risk of bankruptcy, as entire sectors of economic activity were forced to shut down. Meanwhile, the collapse of numerous companies would have had dramatic consequences – it would have reduced the potential of the economy for many years and would have caused a long-term increase in unemployment. This is why it was necessary to support businesses and households, primarily through fiscal policy measures. That is why all the governments that had the required fiscal space decided to provide such support. At the same time, monetary policy was also loosened in an unprecedented manner – virtually all the central banks lowered their interest rates, in many cases pushing them down to near-zero levels. Many central banks also launched asset purchase programmes and other operations providing liquidity. The loosening of monetary policy was also particularly important in protecting the economy against the crisis.
Measures aimed at promoting the stability of the domestic financial system are one of the main areas of NBP’s activity. How effectively is the bank able to control these processes during the coronavirus pandemic and the turbulence on stock markets?
The impact of the pandemic on the banking sector must be considered both in the short and medium term. In the short term the key issue was to maintain continuous and unhindered access of the public and the economic entities to money settlements, including both cash and non-cash settlements, and to minimize the risk of liquidity problems in the banking sector. This phase is already behind us and I can say with satisfaction that we successfully tackled this challenge. As we all remember, the demand for cash increased in an unprecedented way – by about 60 billion PLN from the beginning of the year until today, that is, by more than 25 percent. But because we ensured an adequate supply of banknotes, this demand was met fully and in a timely manner.
NBP also ensured the adequate liquidity of banks, so that non-cash settlements could also be carried out smoothly – this was done through repo operations, a reduction in the required reserve ratio, and the purchase of bonds on the secondary market. Moreover, we enabled the banks to refinance loans to enterprises by introducing the so-called “bill discount credit.” In this way banks were granted the possibility of obtaining additional liquidity, which in itself had a psychological effect and contributed to a decrease in uncertainty. The liquidity position of the banks is very good anyway, so in practice they don’t need to use many of the instruments that we are offering.
One important challenge in the medium term will be to make sure that the banks are able to deal with the higher costs of credit risk and to continue lending to the economy. The Monetary Policy Council also took this aspect into account when it decided to cut interest rates by a total of 1.4 percentage points. The reduction of interest rates by NBP, along with other protective measures introduced by the public institutions, significantly reduced the threat to the situation of borrowers and is therefore conducive to a relative improvement in the loan repayment rates. The banks themselves don’t seem to fully appreciate this aspect of NBP’s decision to reduce the price of money. Instead they are focusing on the impact on their interest margins. I’m afraid that this is indicative of a short-sighted approach to these assessments. Over time, the importance of credit risk and the costs associated with it will grow, and thus the banks will gradually come to appreciate all the measures aimed at reducing these costs. As a result, they will ultimately see the net impact of the interest rate cuts on their situation as positive.
I would also like to remind that, as the Chairman of the Financial Stability Committee in its capacity as the macro-prudential supervision authority (KSF-M), I initiated the abolition of the so-called systemic risk buffer, amounting to 3 percent, which freed up about PLN 30 billion of capital for the banks. This is a huge safety cushion which can be used by the banks for the purpose of absorbing any potential losses and also for the purpose of lending to the economy. We also recommended the reduction of risk weights for certain loans to companies in order to stimulate lending. As a result, there are currently no capital constraints on lending.
As the central bank we have therefore reduced the risks to financial stability, both in terms of the capital and the liquidity of the banking sector, as well as in terms of the situation of borrowers, or more broadly, in terms of economic growth. These measures were taken in a quick and efficient manner and on a significant scale. We could say that now it’s time for banks to act, and I hope that they will not unduly restrict their lending to the real economy, while exercising the necessary caution.
It may not be very scientific, but it’s very existential – as the old saying goes, “charity begins at home”. I would therefore like to ask you whether our economy will survive the inevitable crisis?
The COVID-19 pandemic is certainly one of the biggest challenges that the world economy has faced in recent decades. Firstly, because we were dealing with a sudden shutdown of certain business activities in many economies at the same time. Secondly, it caused an unprecedented increase in uncertainty. Together with the introduced restrictions, this led to a sharp economic downturn. Finally, it was difficult to predict the further path of the pandemic and its impact on the behaviour of consumers and businesses.
Fortunately, Poland was well-prepared for the current challenges. Our economy is characterized by a high degree of flexibility and a strong entrepreneurial spirit, which is reflected, among others, in the ability of Polish companies to adapt to the changing conditions. Moreover, we are not as dependent on the tourism sector, as some European countries, and the structure of our economy is highly diversified. Our economy entered the pandemic with a relatively high rate of economic growth, but without significant macroeconomic imbalances. We had low unemployment, a foreign trade surplus, and the deficit of the public finance sector was small. As a result, the state was able to undertake decisive action, which limited the negative impact of the pandemic on the Polish economy. A large fiscal stimulus programme was introduced, aimed at supporting the financial situation of enterprises and protecting jobs. At the same time NBP loosened its monetary policy, which improved the financial situation of indebted entities and which supports the return to a path of economic growth.
Recent data show that the measures taken have been effective, and the worst is behind us. The relatively limited increase in unemployment, as well as the rebound in industrial production and retail sales suggest that the Polish economy is quickly making up for the incurred losses. Of course, the effects of the pandemic will be seen in the economy for some time to come, but I have no doubt that we will emerge from the pandemic shock in a much stronger condition than many other countries.
On the NBP website we also find the following provisions: “The President of NBP is appointed by the Sejm, at the request of the President of the Republic of Poland, for a term of six years. The NBP President is responsible for the organization and functioning of Narodowy Bank Polski.” One the one hand, there is the comfort of independence, but on the other hand, the scale of challenges is enormous…
Independence is assigned to the institution of the central bank, and not to an individual. As the president of NBP I’m fully aware of the challenges and the associated responsibility. I’ve been heading NBP since 2016, and before that I served as a member of the Monetary Policy Council. I was familiar with the functioning of NBP when it was headed by the late Sławomir S. Skrzypek. Heading such an important institution, anchored in the Constitution, requires humility. We also shouldn’t forget that NBP is the people who work at this institution for the benefit of the Polish state. These are all exceptional, high-class specialists and because of that it is easier for us to cope with the numerous challenges.
Let us conclude by going back to the Gospels and to Jesus’ Parable of the Talents (Matthew 25:14–30). This is a parable about a wealthy man who was going on a long journey and therefore gathered his servants and entrusted his property to them. Jesus’ criticism is directed at those who are lazy and unreliable. At the same time, He praises the courageous and the creative. Each of us is a servant, receiving generous gifts from God. Could you please encourage our readers to try and multiply their talents...?
This is one of the parables, which can be interpreted directly in the context of economics and banking. After all, the talents mentioned in the story are a currency, and the master entrusts his money before embarking on his journey in the belief that the money will not only be kept safe with them, but that they will generate an appropriate profit. We see this as an investment. This is true in the case of the first and the second servant. They multiplied the wealth of their master and they are rewarded for it. The third servant buried the money he received, and while he returned it to his master, it came without the expected profit. Unfortunately, he will be punished for these actions. So, what should he have done? Let us refer to the Gospel: “You should have put my money on deposit with the bankers, so that when I returned, I would have received it back with interest.” If we were to stick to this “financial” interpretation of the parable, we could conclude that one of the tasks of human beings is also to multiply their wealth, and even use banks. After all, the word “banker” is mentioned in the story. We cannot forget, however, that while the parable refers to concepts that are well understood by the listeners, and appeals to our imagination, the actual meaning behind Jesus’ words is much deeper. We should remember about the aforementioned concept of God’s economy, which is governed by a different set of rules.
The Parable of the Talents is often interpreted as an obligation for people to develop their skills. In a certain sense this influences the contemporary understanding of the word “talent” in the Polish language. In relation to banking, we should point to the broad context of ethics: the master’s trust towards his servants; the responsibility of the two servants for the entrusted money, and, as we assume, the proper management of this wealth; awareness of the objectives and mutual expectations. The two servants understood this well. The third one, referred to as “wicked and lazy” did not make any effort, and did not work on his skills.
And when it comes to a broader interpretation, I believe we should definitely strive to develop our talents. We live in a society based on knowledge, on skills perfected through continuous development. We must remember, however, that development is not limited to technology. Long-term, sustainable economic development is not possible without deep spiritual development, without conscious moral and ethical foundations. Narodowy Bank Polski, which I have been heading since 2016, puts great emphasis on increasing knowledge in the field of economics. We conduct many programmes supporting education in this area, we provide financial support for activities and projects dedicated to schools, as well as many institutions. You could say that we are trying to multiply the aforementioned talents both in the financial sense of the word and in the sense of developing skills. We base our activity on the belief that Poland will become stronger along with the increasing level of economic knowledge among Polish citizens.
Thank you for the conversation.
An interview was published in the quarterly “Apostoł Miłosierdzia Bożego” No 4 (108) 2020.
Article of the President of NBP, Professor Adam Glapiński in Dziennik Gazeta Prawna
NBP mitigates the impact of the pandemic
The present situation is a challenge for all of us. I deeply believe that yet again Poles will prove that in difficult moments, they can engage and together take the right course of action. The responsible attitude of all those who have limited their social contacts and observe the administrative recommendations related to the pandemic allows us to hope that we will emerge stronger from this experience. Today, doctors and healthcare professionals are on the front line, protecting the health and life of Poles. Another significant group is the employees of enterprises thanks to whom we have supplies of food and other basic necessities. The silent heroes include those who are taking care of children or supporting the elderly and the disabled. Finally, respect is owed to all hard-working Poles struggling with many difficulties that a few weeks ago nobody could have foreseen.
The central bank is doing its job
Although some people may not notice it, Narodowy Bank Polski is also undertaking many activities aimed at mitigating the economic problems resulting from the pandemic. Firstly, we are ensuring the smooth operation of the payment system, which is the fundamental to the functioning of the economy at large. Secondly, we are supplying Poles with cash, for which there is more demand in times of uncertainty. Thirdly, we are implementing a radical loosening of monetary policy, which will reduce the risk of the pandemic and the ensuing global recession turning into an economic crisis and wiping out years of work invested in Poland’s economic success. Fourthly and finally, we protect the value of the Polish currency.
At present, there is a lot of uncertainty about the impact of the pandemic on economic activity worldwide and in Poland. Yet there is no doubt that in the short run it will cause a sharp simultaneous fall in GDP in many economies. This cost will be unavoidable, since without incurring it, we would face a much larger number of deaths and an overload of health care systems, something that many countries are now becoming painfully aware of. In effect, we would risk even greater economic losses in the longer run. Yet this does not mean that economic policy can just wait for further developments. On the contrary, it is necessary to undertake pre-emptive measures, alongside appropriately targeted measures to alleviate the adverse effects of the epidemic, prevent payment backlogs, company bankruptcies, employee lay-offs and a permanent reduction of production capacity. Finally, economic policy – and in particular, monetary policy – must avert the risk of deflation, which is detrimental to long-term economic growth and which is already looming on the horizon of the global economy.
Therefore, in many countries, as in Poland, fiscal programmes of considerable scale are being launched to maintain the liquidity of businesses, protect jobs and provide financial support to households that have lost their sources of income. These programmes are the domain of governments and fiscal policy, which must play a major role in mitigating the negative economic effects of the epidemic. At the same time, central banks are taking measures involving a loosening of monetary policy and increasing the liquidity of the banking sector.
Low rates, stable zloty
NBP was one of the first central banks in Europe to respond ahead of the expected deterioration in the economic situation, and started activities in support of the Polish economy as early as mid-March 2020. Very soon we became aware of the challenges that would arise in connection with the pandemic. We also knew that delaying these activities could only increase the losses and increase the need to take even more radical steps in the future.
This is why we promptly cut interest rates twice, by a total of 1 percentage point, which brought the NBP interest rate to a historically low level of 0.5%. This resulted in an immediate reduction in loan instalments and a few billion zloty saved by Polish households and firms.
It is worth noting that despite the interest rate cut, the zloty exchange rate has remained stable, and its slight weakening against the main currencies observed a few weeks ago was exclusively due to the rise in global risk aversion affecting virtually all currencies. Importantly, the improvement in the budgets of indebted households due to the interest rate cut will be long-lasting, unlike the 3-6 month suspension of loan repayments offered by most banks. This is because the latter does not mean its cancellation but only postpones the payment. The reduction in interest rates means lower instalments not only now, but also after the so-called loan holiday is over. This translates into lower operating costs for firms and lower yields on Treasury bonds, and hence savings on the cost of servicing the public debt. This expands the space for funding the governments’ activities aimed at combating the pandemic, including the cost of providing necessary products to the medical services.
Benefits from purchase of securities
NBP has launched a financial asset purchase programme, the first such programme since the beginning of the systemic transition. Over the last month we have been purchasing Treasury bonds in the secondary market as part of structural open market operations. This is entirely in line with the Monetary Policy Guidelines and the central bank’s mandate resulting from the European and national legal frameworks regarding central banks, including the Constitution and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The purchase of securities is aimed at changing the long-term liquidity structure in the banking sector and preserving the liquidity of the secondary market for these securities. Furthermore, the asset purchases strengthen the impact of the NBP interest rate cuts on the economy. This is because they flatten the so-called yield curve, i.e. the range of Treasury bond yields, which, in the absence of the NBP intervention, would have come under high pressure due to a significant rise in the state’s borrowing needs and high uncertainty. Considering that the yield curve influences, directly or indirectly, the borrowing costs in all sectors – including the margins and interest in bank lending – the purchase of securities prevents the so-called procyclical tightening of financing conditions for all the agents in the economy, including households and firms. Let me make it clear – without the purchase of securities, notwithstanding the NBP interest rate cut, we would be facing a tightening of financing conditions affecting all those involved, which would deepen the decline in demand in the economy, perpetuate the downturn and ultimately lead to an excessive slowing of price growth.
However, let us remember that NBP may not finance public sector entities directly, take possession of their bonds in the primary market or grant them loans. That would contravene not only the Polish law and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, but would also cause loss of confidence in the Polish currency among investors and the general public. Therefore, while making purchases on the market, we must also strive to limit the financial risk and maintain the appropriate quality of the purchased assets.
Billions for the economy
To date, NBP has conducted four asset purchase operations on the secondary market (on 19, 23, 28 March and on 16 April 2020), as a result of which it has provided banks with liquidity amounting to nearly PLN 55bn. At the same time, on 17 March 2020 NBP reduced the required reserve ratio from 3.5% to 0.5%, allowing for another PLN 42bn of bank liquidity to be released at the end of the month. In sum, NBP’s activities have provided banks with close to PLN 100bn. It doesn’t end there, though, as the purchase of securities in the secondary market will continue, and the list of eligible securities is expanded from tender to tender. What is more, in line with the decision of the Monetary Policy Council of 8 April, the purchase will also expand to include bonds guaranteed by the State Treasury as well as Treasury bills.
In addition, under the basic open market operations, every week NBP issues NBP bills worth approx. PLN 80bn. These are surplus funds held on accounts with NBP above the required reserve level. Potentially, banks could use these funds to finance the economy. Another source of bank liquidity could be the use of the repo transactions launched on 16 March 2020. According to end-of-February data, the value of collateral on these operations in the banking system exceeds PLN 340bn.
Taking into account the key role of credit in financing business operations, NBP has launched a bill discount credit programme. Such loans are a favourable and very cheap source of refinancing bank loans extended to companies, thus supporting stable and cheap funding for the enterprise sector.
All in all, NBP has already provided banks with funds sufficient to support activities counteracting the effects of the epidemic, and a manifold expansion of the scale of this financing is still possible. Therefore there is no and there will be no shortage of liquidity to finance anti-crisis measures. Yet it is the task of the government and the public sector to make good use of these funds so that they make their way to honest businesses and households, e.g. all those who are facing economic hardship for reasons beyond their control.
The need to act together
NBP’s current activities are a massive investment which is designed to enable the Polish economy to return to normal operation as soon as possible after the pandemic, thus protecting us against its second-round effects, including an excessive slowdown in price growth and the risk of deflation. The investment will only be effective if it is complemented with simultaneous and adequate measures of all entities responsible for economic and financial policy, including the government and commercial banks.
The banking sector today cannot claim a lack of liquidity as an excuse, as the requirements in this area have also been relaxed. Owing to the interest rate cut and the increase in banking sector liquidity, coupled with large-scale bond purchases, the Polish government has space to finance anti-crisis measures safely and smoothly. Yet in order for this investment to be effective, it is of key importance that all the parties involved promptly launch appropriate activities on a sufficient scale. At the same time, of course, it is necessary to reduce the risk of abuse or diversion of taxpayers’ money to dishonest business people.
The text was first published in Dziennik Gazeta Prawna on 20 April 2020
Announcement of the President of NBP, Professor Adam Glapiński to the Polish Press Agency
The spreading coronavirus epidemic is primarily a threat to public health. Therefore, the government is right to take decisive and forward-looking measures to limit the spread of the virus and the risk of subsequent infections. It will be very wise of Poles to stay at home in the near future and radically limit direct contact with other people.
Of course, such measures will cause short-term economic disturbances, because it will be harder for some people to work, some companies will limit sales and the demand for their products will fall. We may also face problems with the so-called supply chain, especially if international transport is partly disrupted. However, such measures, although severe in the short term, will be beneficial in the long run, because they will limit losses in terms of people's health and lives, and thus will also benefit the economy.
We are aware that the situation of enterprises will worsen. This will especially hit transport and some services. We will also be adversely affected by a significant economic downturn in the external environment of our economy, especially in the euro area. Therefore, measures must be taken quickly to reduce the burden on enterprises and people who will be affected by declining income, because they will face a difficult situation, at least temporarily.
It is currently assumed that the impact of the spread of coronavirus on the economy will be temporary and the most severe in the first and second quarter of the year. However, these predictions are subject to considerable uncertainty, as it is difficult to determine how quickly the epidemic will come under control and at what cost.
The main channel through which the epidemic will impact the global and domestic economy is the decline in demand for transport and tourist services and recreation services and culture in the broad sense of the term. The activity of some companies may be restricted as a result of the forced quarantine of employees or the need to stay at home, for example, to look after children. Other channels through which coronavirus impacts the economies of particular countries are the deteriorating business sentiment resulting in reduced purchases of non-food products and the disruption of global supply chains and corporate investment.
Narodowy Bank Polski is carefully monitoring the situation and analysing the need for any measures to be taken. From an operational point of view the most important thing right now is the efficient functioning of the payment system and smooth supply of cash Both of these tasks are carried out smoothly. There is no risk of running out of cash. Currently, it is delivered to commercial banks on an ongoing basis, nationwide, without any delays or restrictions. Due to increased cash withdrawals, in some places, there may be temporary delays in the supply of cash from the logistic centres of commercial banks and cash-handling companies, but there is no question of permanent problems. At the same time, there are no disturbances in the operation of the payment system, which is functioning smoothly and effectively.
The central bank is also monitoring the developments in the economy and in the domestic financial market on an ongoing basis. Despite the turmoil in the global markets, the zloty remains stable and has depreciated only slightly. Similarly, the yields on Polish bonds are low. This is due to the solid foundations of the Polish economy, the absence of imbalances and the positive assessment of the Polish macroeconomic policy by investors.
The major central banks are currently easing their monetary policy by lowering interest rates and some also by providing liquidity to commercial banks and increasing asset purchases. In Poland, banks are not facing liquidity problems. However, NBP is monitoring the situation and if necessary, we are ready to take appropriate measures. In my opinion, the Monetary Policy Council should already support the economy now by lowering interest rates.
At the same time, banks should defer repayment of liabilities for borrowers experiencing a decline in income, which will certainly affect some of their clients. Lowering interest rates is an immediate and direct way to reduce debt costs. Therefore, this is relief for everyone in debt.
By changing interest rates we will not prevent disturbances in supply, nor will we boost demand in the economy in the short term, but we will reduce the burden arising from existing commitments and support the budgets of companies and households, as well as reduce the costs of servicing the public debt. The absence of such measures could exacerbate the problems that will certainly be caused by the spread of coronavirus and the deteriorating sentiment that has already been observed.
At the same time, the decline in demand for non-food goods and services and a sharp decline in commodity prices in the global markets will bring down inflation in the coming quarters below our current expectations. That is why I will suggest the Monetary Policy Council should lower NBP interest rates.
As in other countries, in the current conditions, however, the response from the fiscal policy is also a key measure. I am convinced that the goal of fiscal policy – as that of monetary policy – should be to mitigate the effects of economic losses due to the epidemic and the emergency measures undertaken to stop its spread.
13 March 2020